Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter John Wiley Frequently it is not possible to manually process the needed information fast. Differentiate between the two major types of software. Describe the general functions of the operating system. Differentiate among types of operating systems . As you read Introduction to Information Technology, you’ll discover that IT integrates and enhances all Efraim Turban, R. Kelly Rainer, Richard E. Potter. Wiley.

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Documents Flashcards Grammar technoolgy. These resources are considered to be inputs; the attainment of the goals is viewed as the output of the process. The cost of virtual experimentation is much lower than the cost of experimentation conducted with a real system.

Models allow for the simulated compression of time. Years of operation can be simulated in seconds of computer time Manipulating the model by changing variable is much easier than manipulating introuction real system. The more alternatives that exist, the more computer-assisted search and comparison are needed. Typically, decisions must be made under time pressure. Frequently it is not possible to manually process the needed information fast enough to be effective.

Introduction to Information Technology, 3rd Edition

It is usually necessary to conduct a sophisticated analysis in order to make a good decision. Such analysis requires the use of modeling. Decision makers can be in different locations and so is the information. Bringing them all together quickly and inexpensively may be a difficult task.

The study of the impact that changes in one or more parts of a model have on other parts. The study of the impact of a change in the assumptions input data on the proposed solution. Study that attempts to find the value of the inputs necessary to achieve a desired level of output.

The process by which companies automate decision process and push them down into the organization and sometimes out to partners. Real- Time Decision Support. The systems that supports business decisions that must be made at the right time and frequently under time pressure. A group whose members are in different locations. Group decision support system GDSS.

An interactive computer-based system that supports the introductioon of finding solutions by a group of decision makers. A face- to-face setting for a group DSS, in which terminals are available to the participants. A DSS that focuses on an organizational task or activity involving a sequence of operations and decision makers. Executive information system EIS: A computer-based technology designed in response to the tugban needs of executive support system ESS.


These can be organizational, industry departmental, etc. Example are provided in online file W Status access The latest data available on KPI or some other metric, ideally in real time. Trend analysis Short, medium, and long—term trend of KPIs or metrics, which are projected using forecasting methods.

Ad-hoc analysis Analysis made any time. Upon demand and with any desired informatioon and relationships. Exception reporting Report that highlight deviations larger than certain thresholds.

Reports may include only deviations. Based on the concept of management by exception. The Basics Intelligent support systems is a term that describes the various commercial applications of artificial intelligence AI. A subfield of computer science concerned with studying the thought processes of humans and representing those processes via machines.

A test for artificial intelligence, in which a human interviewer, conversing with both an unseen human informztion and an unseen computer, cannot determine which is which; named for English mathematician Alan Turing.

Robotic and sensory systems Programmable combination of mechanical and computer program.

Recognize their environments via sensors. Computer vision and scene recognition Enable computers to interpret the content of pictures captured by cameras. Machine learning Enables computer to interpret the content of pictures captured by sensors see next three items Handwriting recognition Enables computers to recognized characters letter, digits written by hand. Neural computing networks Using massive parallel processing, able to reorganize patterns in large amount of data.

The transfer of expertise from an expert to tecchnology and then to the user involves four activities: Knowledge is from experts or from documented sources. Acquired knowledge is organized as rules or frames objective-oriented and stored electronically in a knowledge base. Given the necessary expertise stored in the knowledge base, the computer is programmed so that it can make inferences.

The reasoning function is performed in a component called the inference engine, which is the brain of ES. The inferenced expertise is transferred to technllogy user in the form of a recommendation. Increasing production capabilities Increased quality ESs can provide consistent advise and reduce error rates. Capture and dissemination of scarce expertise Expertise from anywhere in the world can be obtained and used.


Operation in hazardous environments Sensors can collect information that an ES interprets, enabling human workers to avoid hot, humid, or toxic environments. Accessibility to knowledge and help desks ESs can increase the productivity of help — desk employee, or even automate this function. Reliability ESs do not become tired or bored, call in sick or go on strike.

They consistently pay attention to details. Provision of training The explanation facility of an ES can serve as a teaching device and knowledge base for novices. Enhancement of decisionmaking and problem-solving capabilities ESs allow the integration of expert judgment into analysis e. Decreased decision-making time ESs usually can make faster decision than humans working informatuon.

Reduce downtime ESs can quickly diagnose faster decisions than humans and prescribe repairs. Prediction Inferring likely consequence of given situation.

Diagnosis Inferring system malfunctions furban observations. Design Configuring objects under constraints. Planning Developing plans to achieve goals.

Monitoring Comparing observations to plans, flagging exceptions. Debugging Prescribing remedies for malfunction. Repair Executing a plan to administer a prescribed remedy. Communicatng with a computer in English or whatever language you may speak.

Introduction to Information Technology Turban, Rainer and Potter Copyright

The ability of a computer to comprehend instructions given in ordinary language, via the keyboard or by voice. Computer technology, modeled after concepts from biological neural systems, that attempts to simulate massively parallel processing of interconnected elements in a network architecture.

The application of artificial neural network technology. The ability of a neural network to establish patterns and characteristics in situation where the logic or rules are not known, by analyzing large quantities of data. Computer reasoning that deal with uncertainties by simulating the poter of human reasoning.

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What is Control System?