GEORGIUS AGRICOLA t. DE RE METALLICA. TRANSLATED FROM THE FIRST LATIN EDITION OF with. Biographical Introduction, Annotations and. De Re Metallica By: Georgius Agricola Originally published in , Agricola’s De ReM etallica was the first book on mining to be based on field research. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. A Presidential Classic The original edition of De Re Metallica (On the Nature of Metals, or Minerals) by Georg Bauer, writing.
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Agricola had, as befits a scholar, frantically looked up all kinds of ancient writers on the subject, but the harvest was very thin. Noxious gases and the ingress of water are described.
De re metallica – Wikipedia
Agricola his real name was Georg Bauer was born in in Glauchau in Saxony. But the plates, perhaps more than anything else, have insured Agricola’s continued importance.
When the furnace is ready, the forehearth is filled with molten gergius into which the furnace is tapped. That later scholars could make that step, however, was also due to the fact, that they all were put on a new track by Agricola. Inthe Dover edition came out. He explains that mining and prospecting are not just metalica matter of luck and yeorgius work; there is specialized knowledge that must be learned. Only centuries after Agricola were science and technology so far progressed that they could be valuable for each other.
His greatest interest, however, was focused on all kinds of subjects associated with the mining industry. Soft ore and rock were laboriously mined with a pick and harder ore with a pick and hammer, wedges, or heat fire setting. One of his miner friends, a certain Lorenz Berman, was the main character in a dialogue that he published when still in St. There is a section on how the mine can be divided into shares.
The interweaving of science and technique is mainly the work of the metallicw century. All of the original woodcuts are reproduced in this reprint of the edition, offering students of the period, commercial artists, engineers, metallurgists, and even curious general readers an unforgettable picture of the first age of technology.
De Re Metallica was a comprehensive treatise on the state agricol the art at the time of mining, refining, and smelting metals. The text even covers the legal aspects of mining the use of boundary stones, forfeitures of titles, safety requirements of tunnel building georigus the s, and so on.
Assay techniques for base metals such as tin are described as well as techniques for alloys such as silver tin.
De re metallica
Only a few writers from that time wrote anything about mining itself. Instead, as a scientist he tried to form a theory on the origin of those ore layers. Methods for lining tunnels and shafts with timber are described. Agricola just wanted to describe the practice of the craftsmen.
The gold and silver can then be recovered with cupellation. Agricola wrote his book in the scholarly language of that time, Latin. In the time of Agricola technique still entirely a matter of craftsmen who produced a stunning amount of work without theoretical knowledge but with a lot of experience and not to mention lots of inventiveness.
Retrieved from ” https: Our knowledge of medieval mining relies mainly on archaeological remains and on the legal organization revolving around the mining industry. It was not until the next generation which insisted that science could be used to improve the technique, or even society as a whole.
These are very similar for smelting different metals, constructed of brick or soft stone with a brick front and mechanically driven bellows at the rear. Finally detailed arithmetical examples show the calculations needed to give the yield from the assay. The cupel is placed in the furnace and copper is separated into the lead which forms lithage in the cupel leaving the noble metal. The prepared ore is wrapped in paper, placed on a scorifier and then placed under a muffle covered in burning charcoal in the furnace.
Through his professional interest in mining, and with the assistance of his wife Lou Henry Hoover, a Latin scholar who had studied geology in collegeHoover translated De Re Metallica into English. Because these pumps can only lift water about 24 feet, batteries of pumps are required for the deepest mines. Powerful states like the Roman Empire could only exist thanks to the availability of sufficient metals and other raw materials.
De Re Metallica
This large, abundantly illustrated book shows techniques of shafting, pumping by treadmill, animal power, and waterpowerand of conveying the ore won from the mines in trucks, which anticipated the development metalliica the railways.
Joachimsthal in the Ore mountains. In Western Europe a blooming period for the mining industry began in the middle ages. The loss of food from the forests destroyed can be replaced by purchase from profits, and metals have been placed underground mdtallica God and man is right to metalliica and use them. Although he also thoroughly studied the mining industry in his own country Saxony Freiberg in Saxony was an important mining centre the basis of his work are his experiences as the town physician of St.
Fire setting involved piling a heap of logs at…. The choice is made by which colour the ore burns out which gives an indication of the metals present.
metalllica Agricola assumes that his audience is the mine owner, or an investor in mines. A kind of encyclopedia of the mining re and the technique from the time of the Renaissance. The most important works in this genre were, however, the twelve books of Teorgius Re Metallica by Georgius Agricola, published in Apart from discussing the actual mining practices, he also gives a comprehensive technical description of the many ways to clean and treat the ore and eventually separate the metals.
The works of alchemists are then described. A book more often referred to in literature on mining and metallurgy than any other, its Latin text prevented it from being as widely used as it might have been.
A navigable river can be used to bring fuel, but only gold or gemstones metalloca be mined if no fuel is available. Around to Agricola returned to his native country. Illustrated with finely crafted woodcut illustrations, it was one of the most beautifully illustrated books produced in the first century of printing, and immediately became one of the landmarks of early scientific and technical printing as well. Herbert Hoover Lou Henry Hoover.
Their knowledge was in part probably still dating back to that in classical antiquity. The Scientific Renaissance Landmark Experiments in Twentieth-Century Physics.