Noma is an opportunistic infection promoted by extreme poverty. It evolves rapidly from a gingival inflammation to grotesque orofacial gangrene. Cancrum oris. Prevalence: Unknown; Inheritance: ; Age of onset: Childhood; ICD A; OMIM: ; UMLS: C; MeSH: D; GARD: Cancrum oris or noma (from the Greek nomein, “to devour”)1 is a “gangrenous affection of the mouth, especially attacking children in whom the constitution is.

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The disease leads to social exclusion of affected children: Orofacial odis tissues — Soft tissues around the mouth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws Agnathia Alveolar osteitis Buccal exostosis Cherubism Cancgum osteosclerosis Mandibular fracture Microgenia Micrognathia Intraosseous cysts Odontogenic: Noma is a rapidly progressive, polymicrobial, often gangrenous infection of the mouth or genitals.

Noma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, often due to complications such as generalised sepsis, intracerebral septic emboli, bronchial aspiration or inanition. The aetiology remains unknown.

Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

In addition to the severe facial destruction, children with noma often present with rhinolalia aperta, uncontrollable drooling, and socially handicapping halitosis. Palate Bednar’s aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus. It is often cancruk as a sequela to acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis. In other countries, such as Ethiopiainternational charities work in collaboration with the local health care system to provide complex reconstructive surgery which can give back facial functions such as eating, speaking and smiling.

Confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection. The disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality [8] and affects mainly children in the poorest countries of Africa.

Noma (disease) – Wikipedia

Pathogenesis of cancrum oris noma: The ulcers czncrum a foul-smelling drainage, causing bad breath and skin odor. Infections and malnutrition impair the immune system, and this is the common denominator for the occurrence of noma. The risk factors associated with noma are malnutrition, intercurrent disease such as rubella or malaria, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of a lesion of the gingival mucosa an early sign of necrotising gingivitis.


The most debilitating sequela is permanent jaw constriction. Isolation of Fusobacterium necrophorum from cancrum oris noma O.

Survivors of this disease suffer severe facial deformity due to loss of facial tissues and scarring. They may also have a weakened immune system.

When to Contact cajcrum Medical Professional. Known in antiquity to such physicians as Hippocrates and Galennoma was once reported around the world, including Europe and the United States. Teams of volunteer medics coming from abroad are often needed to support oriw local capacity to address the most severe cases, which can be extremely challenging even for senior maxillofacial surgeons.

Children in Asia and some countries of South America are also highly affected.

Noma (disease)

J Maxillofac Surg ; None, Conflict of Interest: Chlamydophila Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Temporomandibular jointsmuscles of mastication and malocclusions — Jaw joints, chewing muscles and bite abnormalities Bruxism Condylar resorption Mandibular dislocation Malocclusion Crossbite Open bite Overbite Overeruption Overjet Prognathia Retrognathia Scissor bite Maxillary hypoplasia Temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Cementicle Cementoblastoma Gigantiform Cementoma Eruption cyst Epulis Pyogenic granuloma Congenital epulis Gingival enlargement Gingival cyst of the adult Gingival cyst of the newborn Gingivitis Desquamative Granulomatous Plasma cell Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Hypercementosis Hypocementosis Linear gingival erythema Necrotizing periodontal diseases Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Pericoronitis Peri-implantitis Periodontal abscess Periodontal trauma Periodontitis Aggressive As a manifestation of systemic disease Chronic Perio-endo lesion Teething.

A physical exam shows inflamed areas of the mucous membranes, mouth ulcers, and skin ulcers. Sitemap What’s New Oeis Disclaimer.

Antibiotics and proper nutrition helps stop the disease from getting worse. Noma can also affect the genitals, spreading to the genital skin this is sometimes called noma pudendi. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. This can eventually destroy the soft tissue and bone.


The disease develops very rapidly and in isolated regions medical care is often only sought after the lesions are well established. The exact cause is unknown, but noma may be due to a certain kind of bacteria. In some cases, this condition can be deadly if it is not treated. How to cite this URL: Infobox medical condition new.

Summary Epidemiology Its exact prevalence is unknown. Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Bednar’s aphthae Cleft palate High-arched palate Palatal cysts of the newborn Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia Stomatitis nicotina Torus palatinus.

Prognosis Noma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, often due to complications such as generalised sepsis, intracerebral septic emboli, bronchial aspiration or inanition.

Antibiotics are recommended to prevent the often lethal complications associated with infection and to help limit extension of the lesion. Sushil Subedi, Oral and Maxillofacial surgeon and the head of Department. Dent Clin North Am ; As most patients with noma do not report until the disease is at an advanced stage, its onset and progression still remains a mystery. The management of acute noma is aimed at improving the health status introduction of a balanced diet and vitamin supplements, and sufficient hydration of affected individuals and providing topical care.

Noma causes sudden tissue destruction that rapidly gets worse. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency in some communities varies from 1 to 7 cases per population. Periapical, mandibular and maxillary hard tissues — Bones of jaws. Oral mucosa — Lining of mouth. Specialised Social Services Eurordis directory. This page was last edited on 27 Decemberat