Londero, AT. Aspectos de la blastomicosis Sudamericana en Rio Grande do Sud, Brazil. De participacao pulmonar entre casos consecutivos. Hospital . AT LonderoAspectos de la blastomicosis Sudamericana en Rio Grande do Sud, JL MirandaLung function studies in pulmonary South American blastomycosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. Apr;29(2) doi: /s Pulmonary blastomycosis. Bradsher RW Jr(1). Author information.
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Blastomycosis also known as ” North American blastomycosis “, ” blastomycetic dermatitis “, and ” Gilchrist’s disease ”  is a fungal infection of humans and other animals, notably dogs and occasionally cats, caused by the organism Blastomyces dermatitidis. Endemic to portions of North Americablastomycosis causes clinical symptoms similar to histoplasmosis.
Lawrence River Valley and southward in the territory spanned by the central Appalachian Mountains in the east, to the Blastomocosis River Valley in the west. Sporadic cases have been reported in continental Africa the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent.
Blastomycosis is caused by the dimorphic microfungus Blastomyces dermatitidisa member of the phylum Blastomicosid in the family Ajellomycetaceae. It has been recognised as the asexual state of Ajellomyces dermatitidis. In endemic areas, the fungus lives in soil and rotten wood near blastomlcosis and rivers.
The moist, acidic soil in the surrounding woodland harbors the fungus. Occasionally, if a lesion is seen on X-ray in a cigarette smoker, the disease may be misdiagnosed as carcinoma, leading to swift excision of the pulmonary lobe involved.
Upper lung lobes are involved somewhat more frequently than lower lobes. In these cases, the large Blastomyces yeast cells translocate from the lungs and are trapped in capillary beds elsewhere in the body, where they cause lesions. Other recurring sites of dissemination are the genitourinary tract kidney, prostate, epididymis; collectively ca. An uncommon but very dangerous type of primary blastomycosis manifests as acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDS ; for example, this was seen in 9 of 72 blastomycosis cases studied in northeast Tennessee.
Inhaled conidia of B. Some of these escape phagocytosis and transform into yeast phase rapidly. Having thick walls, these are resistant to phagocytosis and express glycoprotein, BAD-1which is a virulence factor as well as an epitope. In lung tissue, they multiply and may disseminate through blood and lymphatics to other organs, including the pulmonsr, bone, genitourinary tract, and brain. The incubation period is 30 to days, sudsmericana infection can be asymptomatic.
Once suspected, the diagnosis of blastomycosis can usually be confirmed by demonstration of the characteristic broad based budding organisms in sputum or tissues by KOH prep, cytology, or histology.
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Blastomycosis is histologically sudameircana with granulomatous nodules. Commercially available urine antigen testing appears to be quite sensitive in suggesting the diagnosis in cases where the organism is not readily detected. While culture of the organism remains the definitive diagnostic shdamericana, its slow growing nature can lead to delays in treatment of up to several weeks.
However, sometimes blood and sputum cultures may not detect blastomycosis. Itraconazole given orally is the treatment of choice for most forms of the disease. Ketoconazole may also be used. Cure rates are high, and the treatment over a period of months is usually well tolerated. Amphotericin B is considerably more toxic, and is usually reserved for immunocompromised patients who pulmonarr critically ill and those with central nervous system disease.
Patients who cannot tolerate deoxycholate formulation of Amphotericin B can be given lipid formulations. Incidences in most endemic areas are circa 0. In Ontario, Canada, considering both endemic and non-endemic areas, the overall incidence is around 0.
The study of outbreaks as well as trends in individual cases of blastomycosis has clarified a number of important matters. Some of these relate to the ongoing effort to blxstomicosis the source of infectious inoculum of this species, while others relate to which groups of people are especially likely to become infected.
Human blastomycosis is primarily associated with forested areas and open watersheds;     It primarily affects otherwise healthy, vigorous people, mostly middle-aged,  who acquire the disease while working or undertaking recreational activities in sites conventionally considered clean, healthy and in many cases beautiful.
There is also a developing profile of urban and other domestic blastomycosis cases, beginning with an outbreak tentatively attributed to construction dust in Westmont, Illinois.
Though proximity to open watersheds was linked to incidence in some areas,  suggesting that outdoor activity within the city may be connected to many cases, there is also an increasing body of evidence that even the interiors of buildings may be risk areas.
An early case concerned a prisoner who was confined to prison during the whole of his likely blastomycotic incubation period. Seasonality and weather also appear to be linked to contraction of blastomycosis.
Many studies have suggested an association between blastomycosis contraction and cool to moderately warm, moist periods of the blasfomicosis and autumn    or, in relatively warm winter areas. The seemingly contradictory sudamfricana can most likely be reconciled by proposing that B.
Indeed, dust per se or construction potentially linked to dust has been associated with several outbreaks    The data, then, tend to link blastomycosis to all weather, climate and atmospheric conditions except freezing weather, periods of snow cover, and extended periods of hot, dry summer weather in which soil is not agitated. Sex is another factor inconstantly linked to contraction of blastomycosis: Ethnic group pu,monar race is frequently investigated in epidemiological studies of blastomycosis, but is potentially profoundly conflicted by differences in residence and in quality and accessibility of medical care, factors that have not been stringently controlled for to date.
There are a very small number of cases of human-to-human transmission of B.
Blastomycosis – Wikipedia
Blastomycosis was first described by Thomas Casper Gilchrist  in and sometimes goes by the eponym Gilchrist’s disease. Jane Buikstra found evidence for what may have been an epidemic of a serious spinal disease in adolescents and young adults. Several of the skeletons showed lesions in the spinal vertebrae in the lower back.
There are two modern diseases that produce lesions in the bone similar to the ones Dr. Buikstra found in these prehistoric specimens – spinal TB and blastomycosis. The bony lesions in these two diseases are practically identical. Blastomycosis seems more probable as these young people in Late Uplmonar and Mississippian times may have been afflicted because they were spending more time cultivating plants than their Middle Woodland predecessors had done.
If true, it would be another severe penalty Late Woodland people had to pay as they shifted to agriculture as a blastomicodis of life, and it would be a contributing factor to shortening their lifespans compared to those of the Middle Woodland people. Blastomycosis also affects an indefinitely broad range of mammalian hosts, and dogs in particular are a highly vulnerable sentinel species. Cats are the animals next most frequently detected as infected. Budding yeasts in cytoplasm of giant cells at arrows.
Broad-based budding and sudamericqna countoured cell wall seen in the giant cell in the center is characteristic of Blastomyces dermatiditis.
Granuloma with early suppuration. Fungal organisms difficult to recognize at this low magnification. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The term “South American blastomycosis” is sometimes used to describe an infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis though the term Paracoccidioidomycosis is more frequently used to describe this condition.
Nodular skin lesions of blastomycosis, one of which is a bullous lesion on top of a nodule. Overview – eMedicine Dermatology”. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. Canada Communicable Disease Report. Canadian Medical Association Journal. The Western Journal of Medicine. American Journal of Public Health.
Ecology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. New England Journal of Medicine. The Journal of Infectious Diseases.
The American Journal of Medicine. The American Review of Respiratory Disease. American Journal of Epidemiology. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Seminars in respiratory infections. Reviews of infectious diseases. A review of patients from Mississippi”. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. A review of 36 cases”. Americans in Search of Their Prehistoric Past.
Fungal infection and mesomycetozoea B35—B49— Hortaea werneckii Tinea nigra Piedraia hortae Black piedra. Malassezia furfur Tinea versicolor Sudamericcana folliculitis Trichosporon White piedra. Primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis Histoplasma capsulatum Sudajericana Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis Primary pulmonary histoplasmosis Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis Histoplasma duboisii African histoplasmosis Lacazia loboi Lobomycosis Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Paracoccidioidomycosis.
Blastomyces dermatitidis Blastomycosis North American blastomycosis South American blastomycosis Sporothrix schenckii Sporotrichosis Penicillium marneffei Penicilliosis. Candida albicans Candidiasis Oral Esophageal Vulvovaginal Chronic mucocutaneous Antibiotic candidiasis Candidal intertrigo Candidal onychomycosis Candidal paronychia Candidid Diaper candidiasis Congenital cutaneous candidiasis Perianal candidiasis Systemic candidiasis Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica C.
Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis Trichosporon spp Trichosporonosis. Rhizopus oryzae Mucor indicus Lichtheimia corymbifera Syncephalastrum racemosum Apophysomyces variabilis.
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